“The End of Poverty: How we can make it happen in our lifetime” (2005, 2015)
Jaffrey Sachs: The Director of the Earth Institute, Quetelet Professor of Sustainable Devlopment.. special advisor to United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan
The Millennium, 9/11 And The United Nations
- Document “We the People: The role of the United Nations in the 21st Century” by General Secretary- Kofi Annan. – The UN represents not only its 191-member governments but also the peoples of the world as individuals, who are endowed with rights and responsibilities that have a global reach.
- The Millenium Declaration: The first seven goals call for sharp cuts in poverty, disease and environment degradation. The eighth goal is essentially a commitment of global partnership, a compact of Rich and Poor countries to work together to achieve the first seven goals.
- Terrorism has complex and varying causes and cannot fought by military means alone. To fight terrorism, we will need to fight poverty and deprivation as well. It requires to address the deeper roots of terrorism in societies that are not part of global prosperity, that are marginalized in the world economy, that are bereft of hope and that are misused and abused by the rich world, as have been the oil states of the Middle East.
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt led the united states into the World War II on the basis of defending four freedoms, a. freedom of speech and expression- everywhere in the world, b. freedom of every person to worship God in his own way, c. freedom from want d. freedom from fear.
- the Atlantic Charter: Joint Statement of war aims of the US and the UK
- The UN- Framework for global cooperation
- The Marshall Plan- freedom from want
- Weapon of mass salvation-
- Doha Declaration (2001)- emphasis on reform of the trading system in order to meet the needs of the poorest countries
- Monterrey (2002) Consensus: The role of private investment and official development assistance
- Millenium Challence Account (MCA):
- Conventional army on the ground cannot suppress local uprisings or guerrilla warfare without tremendous bloodshed and years of agony.
- Earth Science: a. pioneering the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in rural Ethiopia to monitor, predict, and respond rapidly to malaria epidemics b. Using specially programmed cell phones in remote rural Rwanda to provide real-time health data to the Ministry of Health, etc.
Ch12. On the ground solutions for ending poverty
If the poor are poor because they are lazy or their government are corrupt, how could global cooperation help?
These common beliefs are misconceptions, only a small part of the explanation, if at all, of why the poor are poor.
In all corners of the world, the poor face structural challenges that keep them from getting even their first foot on the ladder of development. Most societies with good harbours, close contacts with the rich world, favourable climates, adequate energy sources and freedom from epidemic disease have escaped from poverty.
The world’s remaining challenge is not mainly to overcome laziness and corruption, but rather to take on geographic isolation, disease, vulnerability to climate shocks and so on with new system of political responsibility that can get the job done.
Big Five development interventions that spell the difference between hunger, disease, and death and health and economic development.
- Agriculture Inputs: Fertilizers, green manures and cover crops, water harvesting and small-scale irrigation, improved seeds, storage facilities, locally made storage bins,
- Investment in basic health: a village clinic, free antimalarial bednets, effective antimalarial medicines, treatment for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections, antiretroviral therapy for late stage AIDS, other essential health services etc.
- Investment in education: Meals for all students, the quality of education, attendance at school, expanded vocational training, computer literacy, basic infrastructure maintenance, carpentry, and the like, villagewide classes once a month could train adults in hygiene, a myriad of other technical and enormously pressing topics, increased information and technical knowledge
- Power, transport and communication services:
- Safe drinking water and sanitation: Enough water points and latrines,
Mumbai Case Study, 2004:
A community living near railway tracks within ten feet of tracks. Shacks of poster boards, corrugated sheet metal, thatch, and whatever else is at hand are pushed right against the tracks. Children and the old routinely walk along the tracks, often within a foot or two of passing trains. They defecate on the tracks, for lack of alternative sanitation. And they are routinely maimed and killed by the trains.
Sheela Patel, an energetic and charismatic social worker- SPARC: Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centers: Empowerment- how slum dwellers who own virtually nothing have found a voice, a strategy for negotiating with the city government. RSDF: A Railway Slum Dwellers Federation, organized by the community members
Ch. 13: Making the investments needed to end poverty:
The extreme poor lack six major kinds of capital-
- Human Capital: health, nutrition, and skills needed for each person to be economically productive
- Business Capital: the machinery, facilities, motorized transport used in agriculture, industry and services
- Infrastructure: roads, power, water and sanitation, airports and seaports and telecommunications systems, that are critical inputs into business productivity
- Natural Capital: arable land, healthy soils, biodiversity, and well-functioning ecosystems that provide the environmental services needed by human society
- Public institutional capital: the commercial law, judicial systems, government services and policing that underpin the peaceful and prosperous division of labour
- Knowledge capital: the scientific and technological know-how that raises productivity in business output and the promotion of physical and natural capital
How to overcome a poverty trap?
The poor start with a very low level of capital per person, and then find themselves trapped in poverty because the ratio of capital per person actually falls from generation to generation.